Crossbreeding reveals the scale and genetic architecture of local adaptation in a predominantly selfing Hordeum spontaneum
Environmental variation can be large across a wide range of spatial scales resulting in complex patterns of local adaptation across species ranges. We analyzed the scale, genetic mechanism and direct climatic causes of local adaptation in a widely distributed grass Hordeum spontaneum. We performed artificial crosses of maternal plants representing the same Negev desert population with plants originating elsewhere. Pollen donors were plants from other Negev desert populations, non-desert Israeli populations sampled along an aridity gradient, and accessions covering the entire species range. Our study included planting of inter-population hybrids under favorable and simulated desert experimental conditions, followed by analysis of their performance, variation in adaptive traits and relationship with climatic parameters at sampling locations. The combined results of parental phenotypic variation and performance of hybrids were consistent with local selection, reflecting the importance of both regional and local climates. The adaptive genetic differentiation of barley desert populations had a complex architecture. None of the three effects (additive, dominance and epistasis) were fully responsible for this differentiation. Although genetic effects not related to extrinsic selection appear to contribute to genetic differentiation in barley, epistatic effects arising from local selection clearly predominated. The short-term effect of gene flow by pollen was generally negative, indicating that a majority of the new allele combinations created by recombination were maladaptive. However, the long-term effect of occasional pollen flow from other desert populations appears to be positive, as some new recombined genotypes were superior in fitness to the maternal plants even in the F2 generation.
Surkhondaryo province is one of the largest and richest in vascular plant species diversity administrative units of Uzbekistan, which also has an extremely high concentration of species endemic to Mountainous Central Asia and Uzbekistan in particular. A characteristic geological feature of this area is the wide spread of variegated outcrops formed during the Cretaceous and partly Paleogene age. Using the botanical-geographical zonation of Uzbekistan and 5x5 km grid cells, we analyzed the distribution of 63 Surkhondaryo province endemics to identify the hotspots of endemic species richness. The Baysun phytogeographic region, located in the southwest spurs of the Hissar ridge, had the largest number of species-rich grid cells. The Surkhan-Sherabad and Babatag phytogeographic regions, located mainly in the piedmonts, foothills and low mountain belt of the Kuhitang and Babatag mountains, turned out to be poor in endemic species. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of 63 provincial endemic species were estimated for the first time. Based on the analysis of available data and long-term field observations, the extinction of one of the narrow endemics of the Surkhondaryo province - Dipcadi turkestanicum Vved. appears to be a sad reality.
The Tian Shan and Pamir-Alay mountains of Central Asia are generally regarded as the primary center of diversity of Tulipa species, but a comparative morphological description of Central Asian Tulipa species is still lacking. To fill the existing gap, we studied 48 Tulipa species found in Central Asia plus one outgroup (Erythronium caucasicum) for 24 morphological characters of bulbs, leaves, stems and flowers. The obtained data matrix was subjected to a cladistic analysis. Although bootstrap values were low, the morphology-based tree more or less corresponded to previous classifications, except for the placement of sect. Clusianae and T. butkovii.
Taxonomic and nomenclatural inventory of the Umbelliferae in Central Asia, described on the basis of collections of the National Herbarium of Uzbekistan
The National Herbarium of Uzbekistan (TASH) in Tashkent is the oldest and largest botanical collection not only in Uzbekistan, but also in the entire region of Central Asia. The article presents a complete inventory of the type material of Umbelliferae taxa stored in the National Herbarium of Uzbekistan (TASH), as well as some key events of the TASH history and its main personalities. The herbarium in its current state is a result of merging of seven Uzbekistanian herbaria. TASH played a special role in the studies of Central Asian Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). TASH currently holds type specimens of 130 taxa of Umbelliferae, including 125 species and 5 intraspecific taxa (according to the ranks proposed in protologues). The TASH Umbelliferae type collection contains holotypes of 82 taxa, lectotypes of 36 taxa, isolectotypes of 22 taxa, syntypes of 15 taxa, and isotypes of 19 taxa. The names of 54 taxa have been preserved in the modern nomenclature of the Umbelliferae, whereas the names of 46 and 33 taxa are now considered as nomenclatural and taxonomic synonyms. Four lectotypes are designated here.
Continuing wide-scale habitat degradation and species extinctions indicate that existing plant conservation practices are inadequate and new approaches are needed. I briefly summarize the major principles of a previously proposed concept called conservation- oriented restoration and compare it with two other approaches to tackling ecosystems' degradation and biodiversity loss: traditional restoration and species-targeted conservation. I then present my perspective on how this concept can be applied in Central Asia as a possible solution to the regional biodiversity crisis.
Editor in Chief
Sara Palacio Blasco - Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia, Spain
David E. Boufford - Harvard University Herbaria, USA
Hyeok Jae Choi - Changwon National University, South Korea
Davron Dekhkonov - Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan
Tao Deng - Kunming Institute of Botany, China
Ismail Eker - Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
Yusufjon Gafforov - Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan
Dmitry A. German - Altay State University, Russia
Chang-gee Jang - Kongju University, South Korea
Furkat Khassanov - Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan
Georgy Lazkov - Institute of Biology and Pedology, Kyrgyzstan
Marcin Nobis - Jagiellonian University, Poland
Arkadiusz Nowak - Opole University, Poland
Munir Ozturk - Ege University, Turkey
Alexander Rudov - Institute of Botany, Armenia
Alexander N. Sennikov - Botanical Museum of Helsinki University, Finland
Takashi Shiga - Niigata University, Japan
Habibullo Shomurodov - Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan
Alexander R. Sukhorukov - Moscow State University, Russia
Hang Sun - Kunming Institute of Botany, China
Komiljon Sh. Tojibaev - Institute of Botany, Uzbekistan
Yerlan Turuspekov - Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Kazakhstan